Viewpoint on formulating policies for sustainable shrimp culture
An examination is made of all the negative impacts attributed to shrimp culture, particularly to intensive culture, considering also remedial measures recommended to ameliorate their ill-effects and discussing the implications and practicability of the suggested measures. The following impacts are covered: loss of mangrove ecosystems; organic loading and pollution; nutrient enrichment and eutrophication; the use of bio-active materials; longevity and toxicity of chemicals to non-target species; development of antibiotic resistance; species introduction and spread of disease; decline in natural stock of shrimps and other species; water and soil salinization and land subsidence; privatization of resources; competition for land, credit and commercial products; decline in domestic food crops; and, the 'fish meal trap'.
Yap, W. G. (1999). Viewpoint on formulating policies for sustainable shrimp culture. In Bangkok FAO Technical Consultation on Policies for Sustainable Shrimp Culture, Bangkok (Thailand), 8-11 Dec 1997 (pp. 158–165). Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.