Viewpoint on formulating policies for sustainable shrimp culture
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An examination is made of all the negative impacts attributed to shrimp culture, particularly to intensive culture, considering also remedial measures recommended to ameliorate their ill-effects and discussing the implications and practicability of the suggested measures. The following impacts are covered: loss of mangrove ecosystems; organic loading and pollution; nutrient enrichment and eutrophication; the use of bio-active materials; longevity and toxicity of chemicals to non-target species; development of antibiotic resistance; species introduction and spread of disease; decline in natural stock of shrimps and other species; water and soil salinization and land subsidence; privatization of resources; competition for land, credit and commercial products; decline in domestic food crops; and, the 'fish meal trap'.
Yap, W. G. (1999). Viewpoint on formulating policies for sustainable shrimp culture. In Bangkok FAO Technical Consultation on Policies for Sustainable Shrimp Culture, Bangkok (Thailand), 8-11 Dec 1997 (pp. 158–165). Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.