Artificial reef programmes in Singapore
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Artificial reef projects were initiated in Singapore in 1989 using tyre pyramids and hollow concrete modules. These were deployed at depths of 15m and were aimed at improving fish stocks. Larger-sized fish preferred the concrete modules while juveniles favoured the tyre reefs. Fish abundance and diversity increased over 7 years before reaching equilibrium. In recent years, fiber glass modules referred to as 'Reef Enhancement Units' were established in shallow reef areas to investigate their effectiveness in reef restoration. Early results showed that they provided suitable substrata for the settlement and development of coral recruits and other reef-associated species, as well as for coral transplants.
Chou, L. M. (2005). Artificial reef programmes in Singapore. In Proceedings of the 2nd Regional Workshop on Enhancing Coastal Resources: Artificial Reefs in Southeast Asia, 9-12 November, 2004, Thailand (pp. 89-93). Samut Prakan, Thailand: Training Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.