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Diagnosis of nutritional diseases is difficult because many signs exhibited by fish are non-specific and most nutritional deficiencies are hard to define. A compilation of data on feed composition and feeding management, as well as husbandry practices, are needed to define a case. Most of data on fish and shrimp nutritional diseases were gathered under experimental conditions. Under farm conditions, most of that definition would be clouded with errors in husbandry practices or secondary infection. Therefore, attempts to diagnose nutritional diseases should be carefully done using every available technique to define the case.
Lavilla-Pitogo, C. R., & Amar, E. C. (2010). Nutritional diseases. In G. D. Lio-Po & Y. Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture (2nd ed., pp. 157-169). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.