Biology and ecology of Penaeus monodon
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The giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, the largest and most commercially important species among penaeids reaching 270 mm in body length or 260 g in weight, is suitable for culture in ponds and offers high market prices. This species occurs mainly in Southeast Asian waters, though it is quite widely distributed from 30°E to 155°E longitude and 35°N to 35°S latitude. Mating and spawning generally take place at night. The maximum number of eggs spawned at a time is more than 800,000. The life history is classified into six phases: embryo, larva, juvenile, adolescent, Subadult, and adult. The biological minimum size is 37 mm carapace length for males and 47 mm CL for females. The food consists mainly of small crustacea, mollusks and annelids. The adult is a predator of slow-moving benthic macroinvertebrates, or opportunistic in feeding behavior. This prawn is relatively eurythermal and euryhaline, growing rapidly to a large size. The life span may be one and a half to two years, and the female may live for a longer period than the male. In general, the female is larger than the male.
Motoh, H. (1985). Biology and ecology of Penaeus monodon. In Taki Y., Primavera J. H. and Llobrera J. A. (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 27-36). Iloilo City, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.