Research on marine fishes
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Research on marine fishes at SEAFDEC/AQD from 1995 to date was mostly on milkfish Chanos chanos. Studies focused on the refinement of broodstock and seed production techniques to improve egg and larval production as well as to eliminate morphological deformities in hatchery-bred fry. A verification study with former shrimp hatchery operators demonstrated the technical and economic viability of the AQD-generated milkfish hatchery technology. Production and efficiency of semi-intensive grow-out in ponds were enhanced by the use of formulated feeds and appropriate feeding scheme. Milkfish farming in the Philippines was critically reviewed and recommendations to sustain milkfish culture production were made. Tobacco dust and metaldehyde formulation were proposed as alternatives to organotin-based pesticides in controlling the population of pond snail. The growth hormone of milkfish has been isolated and purified. Addition of highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA)-rich oils in the diet did not improve the quality of spawned eggs of grouper Epinephelus coioides. A protocol for the intensive larval rearing of grouper was developed based on the results of several studies. A semi-intensive seed production method using copepod nauplii during the early feeding stages was also developed as an alternative to intensive method. Metamorphosis of larvae was significantly accelerated by exogenous thyroid hormones. Nutritional studies to reduce the amount of fish meal in grouper diets are in progress. Groupers grown in ponds or cages harbor a variety of parasites. Biochemical criteria to assess the quality of spawned Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer eggs was characterized. Diaphanosoma or other copepods may be an alternative or supplemental live prey to Artemia during sea bass larviculture. A practical diet for sea bass culture was developed. Studies to determine the essential amino acid requirements of sea bass are about to be completed. The effects of immuno-stimulants in sea bass are presented. Induced and natural spawning of mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus in concrete tanks or floating net cages has been documented. An improved larval rearing method has been developed using screened rotifers during the early feeding stage of the larvae. Exogenous thyroid hormones have advanced metamorphosis of larvae. A practical diet for snapper is under development. Research on rabbitfish Siganus guttatus were geared to developing tools for growth enhancement. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) has been cloned, allowing the production of recombinant rabbitfish GH. Rabbitfish prolactin, somatolactin have also been purified. Studies on marine ornamental fish focused on two species of seahorses, Hippocampus kuda and H. barbouri, and on blue tang Paracanthurus hepatus. Progress on the biology, breeding, and seed production of seahorses are presented. Successive natural spawnings of blue tang in concrete circular tank have been recorded.
Toledo, J. D. (2001). Research on marine fishes. In L. M. B. Garcia (Ed.), Responsible Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Seminar-Workshop on Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia organized by the Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 12-14 October 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 173–184). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.
- ADSEA '99 
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