Diseases of milkfish
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Although the history of Chanos chanos culture has been quite long, reports of major epizootics have been few. Trained manpower and disease diagnostic services in most milkfish growing areas have not been readily available. Hence, earlier reports of etiologic agents of these epizootics were limited mostly to direct microscopic examination of specimens. Significant disease cases reported were attributed to bacterial, myotic, parasitic, and toxic causes. Bacterial infections, primarily due to Vibrio sp., have been frequently associated with mortality. To a lesser, extent fungal infections have also been reported. Intoxication of stock in freshwater systems by Microcystis toxins has caused massive fish kills in Laguna de Bay, Philippines. In most instances, affected fish were predisposed by environmental stress incurred in handling storage and transport. The fry and fingerling stages seemed severely affected compared with the older stages. Control of these infections must include assessment of fish husbandry practices first, before the use of chemotherapeutic agents like antibiotics is considered.
Lio-Po, G. (1984). Diseases of milkfish. In J. V. Juario, R. P. Ferraris, & L. V. Benitez (Eds.), Advances in milkfish biology and culture: Proceedings of the Second International Milkfish Aquaculture Conference, 4-8 October 1983, Iloilo City, Philippines. (pp. 147-153). Metro Manila, Philippines: Published by Island Pub. House in association with the Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the International Development Research Centre.
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Pests/parasites and diseases of milkfish in the Philippines Velasquez, Carmen C. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center; International Development Research Centre; Island Publishing House, Inc., 1984)This paper presents all known parasites of milkfish (Chanos chanos ) in the Philippines. The major parasitic groups include acanthocephalans, copepods, isopods, and heterophyid flukes. The number of parasitic species found ...
The pathogenicity of bacteria associated with transport-stressed Chanos chanos fingerlings Lio-Po, Gilda; Duremdez-Fernandez, Roselyn (Asian Fisheries Society, 1986)Two isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila biovar hydrophila and two isolates of Pseudomonas-like bacteria cultured from milkfish, Chanos chanos, fingerlings stocked in Laguna Lake(Philippines) pens after transport were tested ...
Bacteria associated with infection at hormone-implantation sites among milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskal), adults Lio-Po, Gilda; Pitogo, Celia; Marte, Clarissa (Blackwell Publishing, 1986)SEAFDEC Contribution No. 164. Paper presented at the Second International Warmwater Fish Conference at Laie, Hawaii, 5–8 February 1985.