Marine-fish mangrove aquaculture
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Aquaculture has often been blamed by environmental lobby groups as one of the main causes of mangrove destruction. In the Philippines, large areas of mangroves were converted through the years into fish and shrimp ponds. There are aquaculture practices that can be done without destroying the existing mangroves. Mangrove-friendly aquaculture practices of different marine species such as extensive pond culture, culture of marine fish in a modified pond/pen system in mangrove, and cage culture of marine fish near mangrove areas are environment-friendly. These practices are described in this paper.
Toledo, J. D. (2000). Marine fish-mangrove aquaculture. In Y. Tadokoro, V. T. Sulit, & R. B. Abastillas (Comps.), Technologies in Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture. Final Report of and Papers Presented to the On-Site Training on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture, Hai Phong City, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 19-30 April 1999 (pp. 204–213). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.