Outbreaks of viral infections can cause massive mortalities among cultured fishes or shrimps. Water temperature and age of the fish or shrimps are significant factors that influence the development of viral infections. Most fish viral infections occur at low water temperatures, hence, very few viral infections among fishes in warm water culture systems are reported. In addition, most viral infections occur among fry or fingerlings often causing severe mortalities, while older fish or shrimp develop resistance or are hardly affected. Stress from handling, poor water quality, high stocking density and poor nutrition also affect the severity of viral infections. Finally, aquaculturists should beware in importing non-indigenous fish or shrimps into the country as these are potential carriers of viral pathogens.
Lio-Po, G. D. (2010). Viral diseases. In G. D. Lio-Po & Y. Inui (Eds.), Health Management in Aquaculture (2nd ed., pp. 77-146). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center.