Protective immunity against viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscogutattus) following vaccination with inactivated betanodavirus
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Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) caused by betanodaviruses has been recently implicated in serious mortalities of groupers in the grow-out culture system. A safe and effective vaccine against this disease is urgently needed. This study demonstrates that a single intramuscular vaccination with formalin-inactivated Philippine strain of piscine betanodavirus (genotype: redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus; RGNNV) induces potent immune responses and substantial protective immunity against an intramuscular challenge with the homologous virus in brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscogutattus, a highly susceptible marine fish species to VNN. Seroneutralization assay conducted on sera of vaccinated fish revealed the occurrence of substantial neutralizing-antibody titers from Days 15 (mean titer 1:800) to 190 (1:400) with the highest titer observed at Day 60 post-vaccination (1:5120). When vaccinated fish were challenged with the homologous virus at Days 15, 30 and 75 post-vaccination, significantly higher survival rates were obtained in these fish compared with their corresponding controls (L-15 injected fish). Abrogation of virus multiplication in all vaccinated survivors was indicated by undetectable virus titers in the brains and kidneys paralleled by significantly high levels of neutralizing antibodies in the sera of these fish. Consecutively, replicates of vaccinated fish that survived betanodavirus challenge at Days 15 and 75 post-vaccination were maintained in flow-through aquaria and rechallenged with the homologous virus 3 and 5 months later, respectively. A significant drop in neutralizing-antibody titers of 3 and 8 folds, respectively, were observed in the sera of Days 15 and 75 post-vaccinated fish assayed before the virus rechallenge. Interestingly, reversion in the levels of neutralizing antibodies to significantly high levels (8–15 folds) were noted in these fish after the virus rechallenge. Taken together, our current data clearly demonstrate that a single administration of the inactivated Philippine strain of betanodavirus vaccine can effectively mount a specific anamnestic response and concomitant long-term protection against VNN in grouper at the grow-out culture system.
Pakingking, R. V., Jr., Bautista, N. B., de Jesus-Ayson, E. G., & Reyes, O. (2010). Protective immunity against viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscogutattus) following vaccination with inactivated betanodavirus.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 28(4), 525-533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2009.12.004
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