Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared sea bass Lates calcarifer in the Philippines
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Viral nervous necrosis (VNN), also known as viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), is an emerging disease affecting larvae and juveniles of many farmed marine fish species in Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. Mass mortality occurred in 14-day old larval sea bass Lates calcarifer at a hatchery in the Philippines associated with clinical signs such as abnormal swimming behavior and pale-gray discoloration of the body. Histological investigations in moribund fish revealed marked vacuolation in the retina and brain. Cytopathic effects (CPE) were observed in SSN-1 cells inoculated with the tissue filtrate of affected sea bass. A piscine nodavirus, the causative agent of VNN, was detected in the affected tissues and SSN-1 cells inoculated with the tissue filtrate of affected fish by RT-PCR. Electron microscopy revealed non-enveloped viral particles, 22-28 nm in diameter, in the cytoplasm of the brain and retina of affected fish and in the cytoplasm of VNN-infected SSN-1 cells after CPE appeared. These results indicate that mass mortality of sea bass larvae in the Philippines was caused by a piscine nodavirus.
Suggested CitationMaeno, Y., de la Peña, L. D., & Cruz-Lacierda, E. R. (2004). Mass mortalities associated with viral nervous necrosis in hatchery-reared sea bass Lates calcarifer in the Philippines.
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Kungvankij, Pinij; Tiro Jr., Leonardo B.; Pudadera Jr., Beato J.; Potestas, Ihra O. (Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia, 1986)Information is presented regarding the biology and culture of Lates calcarifer in order to serve as a practical guide for extension workers and farmers. Hatchery design, seed production and hatchery techniques, culture of ...
Parazo, Monina M.; Garcia, LM; Ayson, Felix G.; Fermin, Armando C.; Almendras, Jesus M. E.; Reyes Jr., Deogracias M.; Avila, Enrique M.; Toledo, Joebert D. (Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 1998)The manual addresses sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fry production in the hatchery. It describes the principles and practical procedures for rearing sea bass - from eggs until metamorphosis - as practiced by the SEAFDEC ...